Monday, May 25, 2020
Profanity in music, is it a problem that must be addressed now or is it even a problem that we as a society have the power to fix. There have been many different arguments on the topic of profanity in music, however the question remains should music be censored. In Robert T. M. PhillipsÃ¢â¬â¢ address to congress he insists that we must act now to protect our society from the damaging effects of explicit music. Becky L. Tatum argues in her article Ã¢â¬Å"The Link Between Rap Music and Youth Crime and ViolenceÃ¢â¬ that the effects of rap music are basically unknown and extensive research must be conducted before causal assumptions are made. Martha Bayles suggest in her article Ã¢â¬Å"The Perverse in the Popular, that society is attracted to evils or negativesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Communication Theorists want the public protected from the lyrics that could alter there way of thinking. Cultural Studies seem to see think that the shocking aspects of entertainment are a neces sary evil. Then there is Traditional Philosophy, that seem to dismiss popular culture altogether. Communication Theory is based on Marshall McLuhanÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis that the medium is the message or that the media has the power to retool the human sensorium and change human consciousness. W. Russell Neuman found that most humans are resistant toward any message that dose not fit the makeup of the mind receiving it. The optimist and the pessimist of Communication Theory totally contradict each other. It seems that Bayles introduces her readers to the Communication theorist and both sides of the argument to discredit the theory altogether. Bayles then moves on to the field of Cultural Studies. Cultural Studies focuses on the political and social impacts of the media. Its academic practitioners place all works on the same level, as specimens to be analyzed, not evaluated. However that does not stop them from making judgments of value. As Bayles points out, Cultural Studies apply their own standards, which begin with the assumption that all cultural products are ultimately about power and possess value only to the degree that they attack the established social order. Bayles then discusses Traditional Philosophy, atShow MoreRelatedStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words Ã |Ã 1573 PagesIntegrating Contemporary Theories of Motivation 226 Summary and Implications for Managers 228 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Confident Am I in My Abilities to Succeed? 202 Myth or Science? Ã¢â¬Å"The Support of Others Improves Our Chances of Accomplishing Our GoalsÃ¢â¬ 204 S A L An Ethical Choice Motivated to Behave Unethically 209 glOBalization! Autonomy Needs Around the Globe 210 Self-Assessment Library What Are My Course Performance Goals? 214 Point/Counterpoint Fear Is a Powerful
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Language, Exemplar, and Goodness of Fit Although it is clear that human language is a very different communication system than those of other species. The jury is still out on the issue of whether language is a really a system different from other human cognitive systems. The status of language is a major issue for cognitive psychology. Human Language The ability to separate the essential aspects of human language from the properties of a particular language can shed light on how language is developed and where the differences come from. A principle feature of human language is the duality of patterning. It enables us to use our language in a very economic way for a virtually infinite production of linguistic units. All human language have a small limited set of speech sounds. The human brain has featured strongly associated with language. The human language contains discrete units, which would serve to disqualify the bee language system. Humans require a language to have discrete units is not just an arbitrary regulation to disqualify. The discreteness enables the elements of the language to be combined into an almost infinite number of phrase structures and for these phrase structures to be transformed. It is a striking fact that all people in the world, even those in isolated communities, speak a language. No other species spontaneously use a communication system anything like human language. All reasonable people would concede that there is some special connectionShow MoreRelatedHow Is It Related Everyday Life?1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescategorization. 2. How is it related to everyday life? We use the capacity of categorization in our life every day. We use it to solve problems (i.e. what kind of question it is), organize perception (i.e. noticing our surroundings), understand languages (i.e. ambiguity solution), explain things, make predictions, reason, and communicate. The problem of categorization, therefore, is the most fundamental problem of cognitive science. 3. Different Models on Categorization How are objects placed intoRead MoreMission Statement And Philosophy Of Special Education6049 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagescreate a transformative experience for students at an age when their identities, goals and aspirations are being built within and around them; and to cultivate in them the belief that they create their own destinies: each one worthy of greatness and goodness, each one capable of Ã¢â¬â and responsible for Ã¢â¬â serving the community and the world around them. Philosophy on Special Education All teachers are special education teachers. It is the core belief of our teachers, special educators, administrationRead MoreProcess of Operations Strategy7608 Words Ã |Ã 31 Pages |Management involvement and |Seen as being stronger on | |conform to specification but |commitment are stressed |control systems than on the | |would not be fit to use. Juran | |human dimension in | |was concerned about | |organisations Read MoreSMSC12647 Words Ã |Ã 51 Pagesbelief, moral neutrality or indifference, force, fanaticism, aggression, greed, injustice, narrowness of vision, self-interest, sexism, racism and other forms of discrimination an appreciation of the intangible - for example, beauty, truth, love, goodness, order, as well as for mystery, paradox and ambiguity a respect for insight as well as knowledge and reason an expressive and/or creative impulse an ability to think in terms of the whole for example, concepts such as harmony, interdependenceRead MoreANALIZ TEXT INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS28843 Words Ã |Ã 116 Pageswork as a means of orienting the reader and framing the action that is to follow. The quality of the language by which the author projects the setting provides another clue as to his or her intention. When that intention is to invest the setting with a photographic vividness that appeals essentially to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s eye, the details of the setting will be rendered through language the language that is concrete and denotative. The author will pile specific detail on top of specific detail in an attemptRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 Pagesreexamine the extent of their relevance to the real experience of the poor, black members of their congregations, they owe a great debt to Rastafarianism for reminding them of the cultural history of race in religion. If Jamaicans have evolved a language that is willing to see in itself a quality of resistance and creativity that challenges the control of the colonial structure, it owes much of this to the music of the Rastafarians and to the way that it has transformed the way Jamaicans view themselvesRead MoreBrand Building Blocks96400 Words Ã |Ã 386 Pagesa brand is perceived. Perceived quality is usually at the heart of what customers are buying, and in that sense, it is a bottom-line measure of the impact of a brand identity. More interesting, though, perceived quality reflects a Ã¢â¬Å"measure of goodnessÃ¢â¬ that spreads over all elements of the brand like a thick syrup. Even when the brand identity is defined by functional benefits, most studies will show that perceptions about those benefits are closely related to perceived quality. When perceivedRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pages410 SSS Software Management Problems 410 Exercises for Selecting an Appropriate Conflict Management Strategy BradleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Barn 419 Avocado Computers 419 Phelps, Inc. 420 Exercises for Resolving Interpersonal Disputes 420 Freida Mae Jones 421 Can Larry Fit In? 423 Meeting at Hartford Manufacturing Company 424 SKILL APPLICATION 431 Activities for Improving Managing Conflict Skills Suggested Assignments 431 Application Plan and Evaluati on 432 390 418 431 SCORING KEYS AND COMPARISON DATA 434Read MoreQuality Improvement328284 Words Ã |Ã 1314 Pagesfunctional time-limited version from e-academy.com. Preface vii Supplemental Text Material I have written a set of supplemental materials to augment many of the chapters in the book. The supplemental material contains topics that could not easily fit into a chapter without seriously disrupting the flow. The topics are shown in the Table of Contents for the book and in the individual chapter outlines. Some of this material consists of proofs or derivations, new topics of a (sometimes) more advancedRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 PagesIndia Printed in Great Britain on acid-free paper by Antony Rowe Ltd., Chippenham, Wiltshire ISBN 0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928335Ã¢â¬â4 978Ã¢â¬â0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928335Ã¢â¬â4 ISBN 0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928336Ã¢â¬â2 (Pbk.) 978Ã¢â¬â0Ã¢â¬â19Ã¢â¬â928336Ã¢â¬â1 (Pbk.) 1 3 5 7 9 10 8 6 4 2 3 FOREWORD Ã¢â¬Ë Michael Bromwich is an exemplar of all that is good about the British tradition of academic accounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
1. Does the absolute privilege for statements made in judicial proceedings protect defamatory statements made in letters to a judge submitted into evidence at a criminal trial? 2. Does the qualified privilege to publish to someone who shares a common interest or in defense of the interest of others apply when a party in a criminal matter solicited individuals to submit letters to a judge attesting to the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s character? II. Brief Answers 1. Likely yes. Because the statements were related to judicial proceedings, and there was an opportunity to challenge the veracity of the statements, any defamatory statements contained therein are likely protected by the absolute privilege for statements made in judicial proceedings. 2. Perhaps. ItÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Peck, 43 Md. App. 168, 173 (1979). This doctrine has a fascinating history beginning on June 13, 1888, when the Court of Appeals decided three cases involving this privilege on the same day. One case involved statements made by an attorney in the course of judicial proceedings, Maulsby v. Reifsnider, 69 Md. 143 (1888), another involved statements by a witness providing testimony, Hunckel v. Voneiff, 69 Md. 179 (1888), and the final involved statements made by party-litigants in a case, Bartlett v. Christhilf, 69 Md. 219 (1888). The theme that emerged from these three cases is that when a witness is providing testimony to the court, that witness should be answerable only to the court, and not to third parties, for untrue statements by means of the power find someone guilty of perjury. Under these three cases, then, it would appear that the privilege would only apply to statements made under the penalty of perjury. As suchÃ¢â¬âunder this 1888 ruleÃ¢â¬âthe doctrine would not likely apply because the letters submitt ed to the court would not likely be punishable by perjury. In Kennedy v. Cannon, 229 Md. 92, 96 (1962), however, the Court of Appeals extended the 1888 rule to apply to a witness in any Ã¢â¬Å"pleadings, affidavits, depositions, andShow MoreRelatedLaw Firms Face Technological Minefield For Preserve Legal Professional Privilege : True Or False?1314 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLaw Firms Face Technological Minefield to Preserve Legal Professional Privilege Ã¢â¬â True or False? True. But not entirely, as legal practice managers can turn the answer around. Let me explain, and then you can make up your own mind. Electronic communications could pose a risk Ã¢â¬â true Lawyers and their clients communicate frequently. In this world of advanced technology, these communications no longer take place just through good old letters or via a simple phone call. They now take place largelyRead MoreLibel: Gregory V. Gregory Case Analysis1034 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLibel is false, Ã¢â¬Å"published or broadcast communication that lowers the reputation of an individual by holding him or her up to contempt, ridicule, or scornÃ¢â¬ (Pember, 691). Defamation is a broader, more encompassing term that includes both libel, which is published defamation, and slander, which is spoken defamation. In the case Gregory v. Gregory, plaintiffs Robert, Christopher, and Samuel Gregory sue their brother, W. Patric Gregory III (Ã¢â¬Å"Patric GregoryÃ¢â¬ ) for libel. The brothers are in a family businessRead MoreThe Complexity And National Significance Of The D.c1174 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe rules of personal jurisdiction render the D.C. Circuit a forum for many anti-fraud s uits against government contractors. For instance, under the False Claims Acct (FCA), a suit may be filed in any United States judicial district in which at least one of the named defendants to the suit Ã¢â¬Å"can be found, resides, transacts business,Ã¢â¬ or has made false claims to the government as proscribed in the FCA. Any corporate defendant headquartered Washington, D.C. is therefore within the personal jurisdictionRead MoreWhite Privilege And White Skin Privilege926 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages 2 Privilege refers to the unearned advantages enjoyed by a particular group simply because of membership in that group. Privileges accrue to those who (consciously or not) oppress others and are generally invisible to those who enjoy them (Swigonski, M.E. 1996). Having that in mind my position on white privilege (or white skin privilege) which can also be called the huge Ã¢â¬Å"pink elephantÃ¢â¬ in the room. Society (especiallyRead MoreAnalysis Of White Privilege : Unpacking The Invisible Backpack1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible BackpackÃ¢â¬ by Peggy McIntosh is about the dominant white race having societal advantages over the minority race. White privileges are known for having favorable advancements to white people and particularly men in that category. For those who receive benefits due to their origins of the white race refuse to acknowledge the power they have over the minority race. Instead, whites see all races having the same oppo rtunity to become successful. Due to their obliviousnessRead MoreUnspeakable Conversations By Harriet Mcbryde Johnson1184 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessociety (Young 53). In our society, the stigma of disability has been socially constructed and disabled people have long been discriminated (Wendell 101). In Vivian MayÃ¢â¬â¢s essay on Intersectionality, one critical practice is that it can Ã¢â¬Å"challenge false universal and highlighting omissions built into the social order and intellectual practicesÃ¢â¬ and Johnson follows this practice in Ã¢â¬Å"Unspeakable ConversationsÃ¢â¬ (May 81). Harriet McBryde Johnson has been discriminated her whole life because she is notRead MoreDatabase Security: Database security is a critical Domain of Computer and Information700 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesto database security are excessive and unused privileges, SQL Injection, DoS etc. Excessive and Unused privileges is when someone in the firm is granted database privileges that exceeds the requirement of their job function, these privileges may sometime be abused. A good example for Excess and Unused Privilege can be a University System Administrator whoÃ¢â¬â¢s primary function is to maintain student information, but due to excessive privileges could potentially have access to modificationRead MoreThe US Federal Laws and Testimonial Privileges1285 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesLaw The essence of testimonial privileges is to balance the search for truth with that of the unique character of privileged relationships. The US federal laws offer spousal privileges in to persons on the basis that communication between spouses is confidential. This privilege protects against the disclosure of contents of confidential communications between spouses during the course of their marriage. This privilege is applicable in both criminal and civil cases. Either the witness-spouse orRead MoreAnalysis Of Tears We Cannot Stop By Michael Eric Dyson1168 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesplays the role of a pastor. Dyson preaches to white American about the ignorance white Americans have about racism towards the black community. This racism is deep-seeded in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history and has been perpetuated by white innocence, white privilege, and a refusal to learn, despite rebuttal claims that racism is dead in America by white folk. Dyson put forward the idea that racism is not just calli ng a black person the Ã¢â¬Å"nÃ¢â¬ word, blatant discrimination, or cops unjustly shooting and killingRead MoreThe Readings White Privilege : Unpacking The Invisible Knapsack, By Peggy Mcintosh, White Women, Race Matters1425 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe readings White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack, by Peggy McIntosh, White Women, Race Matters by Ruth Frankenberg and Representing Whiteness in the Black Imagination, by bell hooks, all cover the issue of whiteness from different perspectives. There are many aspects of whiteness; in this essay, I will argue that the two most important features are the absence of knowledge of the issue on the part of white people and stereotype consequences. A key point in racism is whiteness, and
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss anout the Perceptions of Sex Crimes Investigators. Answer: Introduction: The Forensic science mostly deals with the examination that are performed in public by the experts. It is closely tied with scientific methods that is used in solving crime cases. Now days it has become essential part of the judicial system. As when cases arrives related to life and death, forensic evidences plays a crucial role. Here key evidence in criminal cases may have come from witness or other subjective means from the past, but forensic always relies on objective evidences (Dror et al. 2013). In the judicial system, accuses remains innocent until proven guilty by the evidences and law. Thus, both the defense and prosecution in many court cases now regularly use it. The recent analysis on contextual bias has discovered that the examiners subjective decision and observation can be misled by excessive information and influences. As experts are intentionally taking vulnerable and erroneous decision after getting touched with the influential people. Thus the objectives are always tends to be hampered due to minor influences that leads experts to develop management expectation about the outcomes of the examination (Buckleton et al. 2016). Thus, there is a biasness due to wishful thinking, self-fulfilling prophecies, traditional values and belief perseverance. These biases work unconsciously without any wrongful intentions on an examiner. Thus these factors are not deliberate or due to incompetence. However, these factors are sincere and thus it affects dedicated forensic experts. These influences generally comes from different sources. There is a major role of the investigator as the theory of the case are in charge of him and at same time, his work is to provide information necessary and relatable to the experiment. Example of biasness includes communication between the colleagues working on the same experiment may share their results from each others work or from the transmittal letters that accompany evidences can induces a biasness in expecting the experiment outcome or acts as tunnel view if the case contains irrelevant information regarding the experiment (Quick and Choo 2014). There are many examples of contextual bias in forensics that occurred in recent times. A case related to Brandon Mayfield is an example of contextual bias. A bombing case occurred in the year 2004 where erroneous latent fingerprinting identification was undertaken. The United State Federal Bureau took the charge of investigation after Spanish police gave the necessary information related to case like dormant fingerprinting found from the plastic bag. The FBI surely identified Brandon Mayfield, as the criminal was a bomber. This experiment of identification was further clearly justified by the finger printing experts and other FBI agents that was appointed by the court itself. The methods of identifying the criminal was false due to erroneous fingerprinting of the individual and was not due to methodology or technology (O'Leary et al. 2015). It was a high profile case and there was a pressure to solve the case. The primary examiner in matching more characteristics between the prints i nfluenced the case. Subsequent examination was then performed, as the initial result was not withheld during verification stage, as the first examiner was highly respected supervisor. Error also occurred due to overconfidence in being one of the best fingerprinting agencies and urgency of case was also the cause that is related to the knowledge of the suspects spiritual belief and terrorist association. From the above example, it is clearly understood environmental influences can bias results for human hair examination. As criteria for identification of individualism occurs via methodology that is analysis, comparisons, evaluations, verifications. In this case first from of analysis was done based on the fingerprints found at the site of the investigation thus errors took place how contextual bias works. From the experimental study it was clear that as fingerprinting experts came to a decisions from the information provided by the police and critically analyzing it in first form of methods and no other forms of methods were further followed (Coulthard et al. 2016). Another example of contextual bias is the case of Stephan Cowans who become suspected as his name was suggested as someone who sold a hat to a criminal. This may have initially biased the investigation purposes, as it was an extraneous influence all around. Later print was found at home were of perpetrators daughter and mother that was misattributed to Cowans. As cows name was wrongly appeared. After those six years have passed, DNA evidences later rectified Cowans. There was another error committed by the fingerprinting examiner who had done mistake but proceed in the experiment through trail (Ward 2015). In this experiment, results came from the analysis of latent print by observing only the seller who was assumed to be suspected in this case. Later the seller was not found guilty as other processes of comparisons prints were done that passed the final review process, as peer review process was apart that checks the procedure that took place during the experiment. SHIRLEY Mackie case was also an example of contextual bias. Shirley Mackie was detective constable who was arrested in the accusation of falsehood for stating under oath as a crown witness. There a fingerprint was found in the crime scene of murder that was not her prints in that case. The finger printing experts proved this evidence of fingerprinting. Later the result was found to be erroneous. Here in this case the fingerprints were found very similar to the suspects so the experts concluded a positive identification when enough similar characteristics were found. This change in fingerprints may have occurs due to skin disease or with contact of other substances that leaves pattern ridge impression on the surface of the skin (Kukucka and Kassin 2014). Options in forensic Evidences: The Options are considered those measures that are undertaken in order to counter effect the contextual bias. Different aspects of options have been discussed in brief in the later part of the report. Blind Testing is the simplest form of options in forensic science which are used in order to counteract the contextual bias. Here no irrelevant information are given to the experts so that they cannot be influenced by the details. Only necessary information are provided regarding the case during the experiment. It sometimes occurs that important facts are required for execution of examination thus it becomes exposed. Sometimes cases are revealed in order to get the information so that task can be performed (Menaker et al. 2016). However, it requires filter system of information. Sometimes officers removes suggestive domain irrelevant information and form submission and they will help to coordinate the examination. At the time of experiment the beliefs, expectation of police and other personnel are being guarded from the examiner. Blindness to the context will ensure examiner based on the results on actual evidences. Another example is double blind proficiency test which is used to check the quality of performance of forensic laboratory and also assesses the competence of the examiner. Here the both the examiner and the laboratory are being unaware that their performance are being tested. A series of unknown samples that are also unknown to the laboratory and examiner are being sent for the examination management. However, it gives a clear indications of the performance of an examiner and his expertise. Forensic evidences is challenging based on contextual and conformation bias as it will appear in Australian court for justification. In these course of experiment there is diversity in literature and experimental studies as both varies in this regards. Despite of this, flaws courts still relies on the forensic science and has faith upon it (Drake and Adams 2015). It also becomes a challenge to the erroneous results because of extraneous influences that also becomes comprehended ideas to the forensic science. However, it is not uncertain that forensic experts performs an invariable role to the judge or jury. The judge and jury always provides interference regarding the experiment results but it is also agreed that forensic cannot be held only responsible for erroneous results (Vera-Rodriguez et al. 2017). Conclusion: In order to conclude the above discussion in brief it can be said that forensic is that branch of science which deals with investigation of criminal cases. It is an integral portion of our legal system. In recent times, forensic evidences have witnessed quite a few contextual biases that might be unintentional or even intentionally. As it is seen in the above discussion that these bias operate unconsciously and the major elements of these are proved to be prophecies, beliefs, traditional values, etc. These bias deviate the overall outcome of the forensic evidences. As the important cases were discussed which were the cases of Brandon Mayfield, Cowans and Mackie where it was observed that error took place due to biasness, overconfidence and negligibility. In order to overcome these issue certain steps are needed to be undertaken. In relation to the measures that are to be taken in order to overcome these problem the concept of options was discussed which explained several methods that are used to counter effect these biasness. These options include measures like Bling Testing, Double Blind Proficiency Test, etc. which act toward taking corrective decision in the event of any biasness. It was also observed in the discussion that these forensic evidences are always challenging based on contextual biasness. However, it can be stated that the role of forensic science to jury or judge is always incomparable and uniform. Reference Buckleton, J.S., Bright, J.A. and Taylor, D. eds., 2016.Forensic DNA evidence interpretation. CRC press. Coulthard, M., Johnson, A. and Wright, D., 2016.An introduction to forensic linguistics: Language in evidence. Routledge. Drake, S.A. and Adams, N.L., 2015. Three Forensic Nursing Science Simulations.Clinical Simulation in Nursing,11(3), pp.194-198. Dror, I.E., Kassin, S.M. and Kukucka, J., 2013. New application of psychology to law: improving forensic evidence and expert witness contributions.Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition,2(1), pp.78-81. Kukucka, J. and Kassin, S.M., 2014. Do confessions taint perceptions of handwriting evidence? An empirical test of the forensic confirmation bias.Law and Human Behavior,38(3), p.256. Menaker, T.A., Campbell, B.A. and Wells, W., 2016. Use of Forensic Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigations: Perceptions of Sex Crimes Investigators.Violence Against Women. O'Leary, A.E., Oberacher, H., Hall, S.E. and Mulligan, C.C., 2015. Combining a portable, tandem mass spectrometer with automated library searchingan important step towards streamlined, on-site identification of forensic evidence.Analytical Methods,7(8), pp.3331-3339. Quick, D. and Choo, K.K.R., 2014. Data reduction and data mining framework for digital forensic evidence: storage, intelligence, review and archive. Vera-Rodriguez, R., Fierrez, J. and Ortega-Garcia, J., 2017. Dynamic Signatures as Forensic Evidence: A New Expert Tool Including Population Statistics. InHandbook of Biometrics for Forensic Science(pp. 329-349). Springer International Publishing. Ward, T., 2015. An English Daubert? Law, forensic science and epistemic deference.The Journal of Philosophy, Science Law,15(1), pp.26-36.
Thursday, April 9, 2020
10 Facts for a Statistical Report on Psychology Studies If you are looking for fun facts on psychology studies for a statistical report, consider the exciting psychological studies conducted below: One study focused on the dynamic differences between males and females was that of Antonette King, Britney Wardecker, and Robin Edelstein who explored whether personal mastery buffers women from long-term outcomes associated with CSA (King et al., 2015). The authors evaluated women with and without childhood sexual abuse, interviewing them roughly two to four years after the birth of their first child; the period was selected based upon historical ideas of motherhood having an important impact on long-term effects of women that had been sexually abused during childhood (King et al., 2015). According to the authors research victims of CSA are more likely to develop suicidal thoughts, depression, low self-esteem, and post-traumatic stress disorder. While all women experience some anxiety and challenges with a new birth, CSA victims often have greater maternal distress and anxiety due to negative family environments (King et al., 2015). Today, there is growth related to the holistic aspect of coping skills, focused primarily on more emotionally supportive methods of care that take into consideration all aspects of the patient and not just their mental state. One such breakthrough in this newer methodology completed by health practitioner and author Debra Rose Wilson who studied the health consequences of childhood sexual abuse survivors from a holistic perspective, providing a model with the purpose of supporting prevention, assessment, treatment, and legal advocacy for health care providers in the field with the use of existing research studies (Wilson, 2009). According to the authors research, after reviewing multiple and significant longitudinal and epidemiology studies, adult survivors of CSA of both genders experience more eating disorders, obesity, addictions, depression, and autoimmune disorders, such as asthma and irritable bowel syndrome (2010). The work of Ullman and Peter-Hagenes study which investigated coping strategies and CSA in their article titled Social Reactions to Sexual Assault Disclosure, Coping, Perceived Control, and PTSD Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims (Ullman and Peter-Hagene, 2014).Using a sample of 1863 volunteer female sexual assault survivors from the Chicago area in the U.S., aged 18 to 71, with a racial makeup of 45 percent African Americans, 35 percent Caucasians, 2 percent Asian Americans, 14 percent Hispanic, and 8.1 percent other, the authors used a mail survey for respondents to complete (Ullman and Peter-Hagene, 2014) testing social reactions to assault disclosure on coping, perceived control over recovery, and PTSD symptoms. All participants had an unwanted sexual incident at the age of 14 or older, were currently the age of 18 and older, and had discussed the incident with someone historically; surveys were mailed to participants; survey questions included items related to social support, un wanted sexual experiences, PTSD symptoms, alcohol and drug use. One other consideration in current research is the ability to recognize early predictors of abuse, so as to afford a better opportunity for prevention and intervention. Debbie Sperry and Cathy Widoms study objective was to determine if CSA and neglect predict low levels of social support in middle adulthood, along with exploring if social support was a factor in mediating or moderating the relationship between CSA and subsequent outcomes of anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use (Sperry and Widom, 2013). Their article was based upon a cohort design study of data from children with recorded histories of CSA and neglect from ages zero to eleven for the years 1967 to 1971; social support was assessed at age 39.5 and anxiety, depression, and illicit drug use was assesses at age 41.2 (Sperry and Widom, 2013). Results consisted of self-reporting having an impact on resilience but needed to be reviewed in the context of the type of assault; many of the studies did not assess factors relating to the sexual abuse such as severity, type, etc., which represented a clear gap in literature/ The question of colored paper and its impact on academic performance has been measured for many years with results varying based on the clinical versus academic setting. Soldat, et al. (1997) tested the difference between red and blue colored paper for performance. The observations from this research indicated that there was a positive and negative effect in the form of happiness and sadness based on the color and that those with the blue paper performed better. The argument made by the researchers was that color was an affective cue and that it had a serious impact on performance. There are many coping strategies used today by adults who survived abuse. Of course, understanding which methods exist is the first step toward a greater appreciation for the wide spread requirements in this field. Kate Walsh, Michelle A. Fortier, and David DiLillo study the various coping theories (Walsh et al., 2010). The colleagues reviewed theories of coping with trauma and how these theories are applied to CSA victims coping as adults, by investigating over 39 studies, which consisted of 11 descriptive studies, 18 correlation studies, and ten investigational studies (Walsh et al., 2010). This study reviewed results discovered from theoretical information resulted in coping with sexual trauma indicating that it is a prolonged process requiring multiple strategies at different stages of recovery; descriptive studies revealed something similar, indicating that strategies evolve and change during the different coping phases (Walsh et al., 2010). One study emphasized the growing problem of re-victimization, something that is very prevalent throughout the current research. Michelle Fortier et al., 2009, tested a model that conceptualized the relationships between avoidant coping, increased trauma symptoms, and increased risk for adult sexual revictimization (Fortier et al., 2009). According to the authors, coping is extremely important for CSA victims, and sexual trauma leads to efforts to adapt through various emotional and behavioral responses, which can be effective and address the problem or ineffective and avoid the problem, with effectiveness dependant upon timing and the nature of the stressor (Fortier et al., 2009, p. 309). Authors Marjorie Feinson and Adi Meir evaluate the impacts of CSA and mental health, within a Jewish religious context in their 2015 study titled Exploring Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Abuse and the Relevance of Religiosity (Feinson and Meir, 2015). According to the authors, CSA has long been associated as a risk factor for mental health concerns, but little research has been done within a religious context (2015). The hypothesis of the study was that more mental health problems were associated with CSA victims versus non-CSA victims; noting that positive relationships exist traditionally between mental health patients and religious affiliation, the authors expected to find very few mental health problems from participants that were religiously devoted (Feinson and Meir, 2015). Expounding upon the concept of re-victimization is the serious concern about the continued relationships with perpetrators of abuse. David CantÃ ³n-CortÃ ©s and CantÃ ³n examine the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among young adults in their study (2010). Various ways of analyzing coping are discussed including problem-focused and emotion-focused, the former being based upon changing the stressful situation in the environment or how the individual responds and the latter being based upon changing how one deals with the situation or the meaning of what happened in the situation (CantÃ ³n-CortÃ ©s and CantÃ ³n, 2010). Active problem solving is another strategy reviewed, which consists of being aware of the stressor and taking action to avoid or deal with it. These facts should provide you with core data for your future academic report writing. You will have no trouble integrating them into your narrative. Feel free to use our auxiliary resources among which are 20 topics and 1 sample essay on psychology studies as well as our guide on writing a statistical report on this very subject. References: CantÃ ³n-CortÃ ©s, D., CantÃ ³n, J. (2010). Coping with child sexual abuse among college students and post-traumatic stress disorder: The role of continuity of abuse and relationship with the perpetrator. Child Abuse Neglect, 34(7), 496-506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2009.11.004 Feinson, M., Meir, A. (2014). Exploring Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Abuse and the Relevance of Religiosity. Journal Of Interpersonal Violence, 30(3), 499-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260514535094 Fortier, M., DiLillo, D., Messman-Moore, T., Peugh, J., DeNardi, K., Gaffey, K. (2009). SEVERITY OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE AND REVICTIMIZATION: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF COPING AND TRAUMA SYMPTOMS. Psychology Of Women Quarterly, 33(3), 308-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2009.01503.x King, A., Wardecker, B., Edelstein, R. (2015). Personal Mastery Buffers the Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Health and Family Functioning. J Fam Viol, 30(7), 887-897. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-015-9728-4 Marriott, C., Hamilton-Giachritsis, C., Harrop, C. (2014). Factors Promoting Resilience Following Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Structured, Narrative Review of the Literature. Child Abuse Rev., 23(1), 17-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.2258 Soldat, R.C. Sinclair, and M.M. Mark, Ã¢â¬Å"Color as an environmental processing cue: External affective cues can directly affect processing strategy without affecting mood,Ã¢â¬ Soc. Cognition 15(1), 55-71, 1997. Sperry, D., Widom, C. (2013). Child abuse and neglect, social support, and psychopathology in adulthood: A prospective investigation. Child Abuse Neglect, 37(6), 415-425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.02.006 Ullman, S., Peter-Hagene, L. (2014). SOCIAL REACTIONS TO SEXUAL ASSAULT DISCLOSURE, COPING, PERCEIVED CONTROL, AND PTSD SYMPTOMS IN SEXUAL ASSAULT VICTIMS. Journal Of Community Psychology, 42(4), 495-508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21624 Walsh, K., Fortier, M., DiLillo, D. (2010). Adult coping with childhood sexual abuse: A theoretical and empirical review. Aggression And Violent Behavior, 15(1), 1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2009.06.009 Wilson, D. (2010). Health Consequences of Childhood Sexual Abuse. Perspectives In Psychiatric Care, 46(1), 56-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6163.2009.00238.x
Monday, March 9, 2020
We Are Our Mothers Daughters' Essays - Cokie Roberts, Free Essays We Are Our Mothers Daughters' Book Review We Are Our Mothers Daughters News correspondent Cokie Roberts, author of a meaningful book titled We are Our Mothers Daughters, published in 1998, call number 001-170, discusses significant issues facing women today in her book. She takes her readers on a personal and political journey, exploring the diverse roles women have played throughout American history and the connections and distinctions among different generations of women. On a personal level, each essay is an introduction to several of the fascination women Roberts has encountered during the course of her reporting career; she also relates powerful and moving life stories about the women in her life, like her mother former Congresswoman Lindy Boggs. Roberts style is unique. Roberts takes you through intimate stories of extraordinary women; these women become the beginning for more extensive discussions of womens position in politics, business, motherhood, and marriage, as well as other issues. Roberts examines the nature of womens roles, from mother to mechanic, sister to soldier, from her personal experience. Roberts is very sincere to her feelings in her writing in this book. I felt just as she was happy or sad. She begins her writing with the intense story of her sister, whom dies from cancer at a young age. The story of her mothers life as a politician next. Roberts also, wrote about an aunt of hers, a soldier, mechanic, friend, reporter, civil rights activist, wife, and an enterpriser. She concludes her book by her last chapter titled A Womens Place. She discusses all the important roles of the women she wrote about and how they tie together. A womens place is everywhere and anywhere in todays world. She worked her writing by writing about the women that were close to her and extended from there to other fascinating women she encountered in her career. Roberts dedicated a chapter to each women she wrote about. This book from my view is sensitive, strait forward, and perceptive. It also shows such a diversity of choices and perspectives available to women today and greatly affirms the bond of females powerful inter connection among all women, whatever their background. I would suggest anyone interested in where a women belong and the history of women should read this selection. Its just one of those bookes, where from start to end you might cry or laugh. I garuntee when you begin to read, you will not want to stop till you have read the entire book.
Saturday, February 22, 2020
The Effects of Health Care Reform on Women and Children in America - Assignment Example It is evidently clear from the discussion that health care reforms should achieve universal and comprehensive insurance coverage, control cost, help purchasers, and add value, prevent the wastage of resources, and use an integrated approach. The exigence or urgency of the issue fuels the implementation of health care reform, to fulfill the needs of the vulnerable sections of society. The above type of claim is identified as Claim of Policy. This refers to the fact that the future course of action regarding health care reform for women and children has to be through further policy changes, which should be appropriately implemented. The claim or position of this paper is that children and women are a vulnerable group who require adequate reforms in health care provision, for improved quality of life. There is a requirement for controlling cost, assisting consumers, adding value, achieving universal coverage, and preventing wastage of funds and resources, for meeting the needs of childr en and women, including older and senior women. Moreover, an integrated approach to implementing the reform measures, along with mutual information sharing is considered essential. From the reduction of welfare rolls and the implementation of welfare reforms have emerged increasing numbers of uninsured children. This vulnerable and important group need Medicaid coverage on priority; children being relatively inexpensive to provide health care insurance, and also benefit from coverage, besides having a right to expect special consideration by virtue of their vulnerability. Similarly, older, senior women and poor, pregnant women are high risk and vulnerable groups for whom reform measures need to be improved. Lack of insurance prevents pregnant women from seeking prenatal care, leading to declining in the health of both the infant and the mother, and increased the possibility of infant mortality.